High-quality sheet metal finishing can improve the aesthetics and functionality of metal parts. There are 10 types of finishing processes for metal surface treatment, each of which has its own suitable materials and has different advantages and disadvantages. Surface finishing techniques allow metal parts to achieve better functionality or more comfortable aesthetics.
What is metal finishing?
Metal finishing is the finishing of the surface of a metal part by removing or reshaping the finish, adding or changing the finish to improve the performance and life of the metal part or improving the aesthetics.
Why is surface preparation important for metals?
Improving the surface finish of metals: Metals that have undergone surface treatment, which is not only for aesthetic purposes but also to protect the metal. The polishing process, for example, improves the conductivity, durability, chemical resistance, and electrical resistance of the metal.
Improving the corrosion resistance of metals: Metals have their own strengths and weaknesses. All metals are susceptible to corrosion, which is an issue that producers pay close attention to.
Benefits of Product Manufacturing: Proper surface treatment makes the metal manufacturing process easier, increasing wear resistance and strength.
Types of Metal Finishes
Raw or Rough Finish
Roughing is one of the most basic metalworking processes and the first step in the machining process. At this stage, the metal material is subjected to mechanical or manual cutting, milling, or forging to achieve a predetermined shape and size. Rough machining aims to process the initial metal material into a semi-finished product that approximates the final shape. After rough machining, the part must move on to the finishing stage for minor trimming and refinement.
- Available materials
Powder Coating is a process whereby dry powder is sprayed onto the surface of sheet metal using electricity to electrostatically attach the powder to the surface of the metal part. The powder particles are then treated with heat or UV light to better cover the metal surface.
- Available materials
Steel: Powder coating is widely used on steel to provide it with properties such as abrasion, corrosion, and rust resistance. This allows steel to be used in many industrial sectors such as automotive, construction, and machine building.
Aluminum: Powder coating of aluminum materials provides an additional layer of protection and improves its durability and decorative qualities. Powder coating is also commonly used in home furnishings and outdoor equipment.
Magnesium: Powder coating can be used on magnesium alloy materials to increase their corrosion resistance and surface hardness.
Copper: Powder coating on copper products can provide a decorative effect while also helping to protect the surface from oxidation and corrosion.
Stainless Steel: Although stainless steel itself has good corrosion resistance, powder coating can provide additional protection and decorative effects.
Nickel-based alloys: Powder coating can be used to improve the wear and corrosion resistance of nickel-based alloy materials.
Zinc: Powder coating on zinc materials provides good protection against corrosion and is often used as an anti-rust coating.
Titanium: Powder coating can be used on titanium alloys to increase their surface hardness and wear resistance.
1. Health and environmental protection: Powder coating is a new type of solvent-free 100% solid powder coating. It is solvent-free, non-polluting, recyclable and environmentally friendly. The powder is applied to the surface and then cured under heat. Excess powder is recycled.
2. Durability: more durable than paint. Resistant to fading, chipping, scratching and abrasion properties.
3. Rust prevention: Preventing metal parts from rusting compared to conventional paints is the best known property of powder coatings.
4. High-quality surface coating: parts have a clean finish and modern aesthetics.
1. Powder cannot be mixed: Powder can only be used individually and it is not possible to make multiple colors adhere to the product at the same time.
2. Limitations on coating thickness: Powder coatings can be applied to metal parts in the range of 50-150 microns.
3. Difficulty of repair: If a metal surface needs to be repaired with powder coating, it must be repaired on the whole surface, not on a single spot.
Automotive industry, furniture and decorations, metal products, electrical and electronic equipment, industrial equipment, construction and building materials, steel products, pipes and fittings Medical equipment.
Electroplating is the process of applying a thin layer of another metal to a metallic object using an electric current. The main purpose of electroplating is to improve the appearance, durability, electrical conductivity, and corrosion resistance of an object.
- Available materials
1. Metallic materials: Plating is commonly applied to metal surfaces to increase corrosion resistance, improve electrical conductivity, and improve appearance. Common metals include copper, nickel, chromium, zinc, silver, and gold.
2. Non-metallic materials: Certain non-metallic materials can also be plated after some special pre-treatment steps. For example, through suitable treatment, materials such as plastics, ceramics, and glass are also able to be plated, thereby increasing their conductivity and appearance.
3. Stainless steel: Although stainless steel itself has good corrosion resistance, plating can be used to change the appearance of stainless steel to increase reflectivity and decorativeness.
Electroplating has several advantages that make it a widely used and preferred process in various industries.
Enhanced Durability: Plating adds a thin layer of metal to the surface of an object, significantly increasing its resistance to wear and tear, corrosion and other environmental factors.
Improved Appearance: Plating can give a metallic object a shiny and attractive appearance, enhancing its aesthetic appeal.
Increase electrical conductivity: Plating can be used to enhance the electrical conductivity of a surface.
Increase hardness: Some plating materials, such as chromium, can significantly increase the hardness of a plated surface, making it more resistant to scratches and abrasions.
Anti-corrosion: Plating with materials such as zinc and nickel provides excellent corrosion resistance and is suitable for applications where the plated object is exposed to harsh environments.
Pollution of the environment: The plating process produces wastewater and waste liquid, which contain harmful metal ions and chemicals. Improper handling and poorly treated wastewater may pollute the environment.
Energy consumption: The plating process requires the use of electricity to generate a current, which can lead to energy consumption.
Pre-treatment required: Prior to plating, the workpiece must be carefully pre-treated to ensure a clean and smooth surface, which can add to the production process and cost.
Not suitable for complex shapes: Plating is usually applied to objects with simple geometries. For complex shapes, it may be difficult to uniformly plate the metal, resulting in an uneven or difficult to achieve coating.
Electrical connections, jewelry, radiation shields
Anodizing is an electrochemical process used to form a controlled oxide layer on the surface of certain metals, primarily aluminum and its alloys.
Sulfuric acid anodizing is the most common type and the most basic anodizing process. Sulfuric acid anodizing produces a variety of oxide layers in different colors, such as black, blue, red, and gold.
Sulfuric Acid Cold Hard Anodizing: is an additional treatment performed after the sulfuric acid anodizing process. In this type, the aluminum material after sulfuric acid anodizing is treated in a cooled sulfuric acid solution, resulting in an increase in the density and hardness of the oxide layer.
Hard Anodizing: Hard anodizing is a type that further strengthens the oxide layer. It is similar to sulfuric acid cold hard anodizing but uses an electrolyte with some sulfuric acid and organic additives. Hard anodizing provides a very high degree of hardness and is suitable for applications requiring extremely high wear and corrosion resistance, such as aerospace and industrial applications.
- Available materials
Aluminum: Anodizing is the most common and widely used surface treatment for aluminum materials. It provides good corrosion resistance, hardness and decorative properties.
Aluminum: Not only can pure aluminum be anodized, but many aluminum alloys are also suitable for this surface treatment method. The composition and properties of different alloys may affect the effect and characteristics of anodizing.
Good corrosion resistance: The oxide layer formed by anodizing has excellent corrosion resistance, which can provide protection in a variety of harsh environments and extend the life of the aluminum material.
Improved hardness: The hardness of the anodized aluminum surface is significantly higher than that of pure aluminum, making it more resistant to abrasion and scratches.
Decorative: Anodizing can produce different colors and surface effects by adjusting the process conditions, providing rich decorative options for aluminum products.
Electrical insulation: The formation of the oxide layer makes the aluminum material have good electrical insulation, which can prevent electrical contact with other conductive materials.
Environmental protection: The anodizing process is relatively environmentally friendly, does not involve the use of heavy metals or the generation of harmful by-products, and has a low impact on the environment.
Cost Effective: Anodizing is a relatively affordable surface treatment and is typically less expensive than some other coating techniques.
Applicable only to aluminum and its alloys: Anodizing is a surface treatment technology specific to aluminum and its alloys and cannot be used on other metallic materials such as steel and copper.
Difficulty in treating complex shapes: For complex parts and shapes, the uniformity of anodizing may be compromised, resulting in uneven or difficult coatings.
Color Stability: Certain color oxides may lose color stability over time or when exposed to UV light.
Mechanical parts, aircraft and automobile parts, precision instruments and radio equipment, daily necessities, architectural decoration, etc.
Acid pickling is a process of treating a metal surface with an acid solution, usually hydrochloric or sulfuric acid, to remove impurities, oxidized skin, rust, or oxides. Acid pickling helps to clean the surface of the metal, smoothing it by removing scale and improving the surface finish of the metal.
- Available Materials
Acid pickling is applicable to many different types of metal materials. The main applicable metal materials include but are not limited to:
Aluminum and aluminum alloys
Copper and copper alloys
Removes surface dirt and oxides: Pickling effectively removes dirt, oxides and rust from metal surfaces.
Improves surface quality: Pickling improves the flatness and cleanliness of metal surfaces.
Pre-treatment process: Pickling is usually used as a pre-treatment process for metal surface treatment to provide an excellent surface condition for subsequent processes such as heat treatment, plating and painting.
Environmental Pollution: Waste water and waste acid generated during pickling contain hazardous substances that may pollute the environment if not properly treated.
Safety risk: The acid used in pickling is a strong corrosive substance, improper operation may cause personal injury and equipment corrosion.
Energy consumption: Pickling requires a certain amount of energy to heat the acid and maintain the treatment temperature, which may increase energy costs.
Material loss: During the pickling process, minor corrosion may occur on the metal surface, resulting in minor material loss.
Iron and steel industry, automobile manufacturing, metal processing, shipbuilding, electronics industry, pharmaceutical industry.
Metal grinding is a common metal process used to finely machine metal workpieces by means of grinding tools in order to improve their dimensional accuracy, surface quality, and shape.
- Available materials
Steel, aluminum, copper, nickel alloys, titanium alloys, cast iron, and all other materials.
High Precision: Metal grinding can achieve very high machining accuracy and dimensional control for applications that require high part accuracy, such as aerospace, automotive manufacturing, and precision instrumentation.
Smooth surfaces: grinding can achieve very smooth surface quality, reducing or eliminating surface roughness and irregularities, which is conducive to improving the wear resistance and appearance quality of parts.
Machinable hard materials: Metal grinding can handle metal materials with high hardness, including carbide, tool steel, etc., which is difficult to realize by other machining methods.
Less cutting heat: Compared to other thermal machining methods, grinding generates less cutting heat, which helps to reduce part deformation and improve cutting-edge quality.
Mass production: Metal grinding is suitable for mass production, especially for machining a large number of parts efficiently while maintaining high accuracy and consistent quality.
Slow machining speed: Compared to other metal working methods, grinding usually has a slower machining speed and a longer production cycle.
Higher energy consumption: The heat and friction generated during grinding results in higher energy consumption.
Large initial investment: Grinding requires the use of special grinding machines and grinding tools, a larger investment in equipment and tools.
High technical requirements for operators: High-precision grinding requires skillful operator techniques, and improper operating techniques may result in damage to parts or processing quality that does not meet requirements.
Generation of abrasive chips: The abrasive chips generated during the grinding process may cause pollution and safety hazards to the environment and operators, requiring appropriate treatment and safety measures.
Manufacturing, aerospace and aviation, automotive industry, energy industry, sheet metal processing.
Metal Polishing is a surface treatment process that makes metal surfaces smooth, flat and shiny by mechanical or chemical means. It removes irregularities, oxidized layers, oxides and other impurities from metal surfaces, thereby improving the appearance and quality of metal parts.
- Available materials
Stainless steel, copper, steel, nickel alloys, etc.
Improvement of appearance quality: Polishing can make the metal surface smooth and bright, improving its appearance quality and aesthetics.
Removal of defects: Polishing removes defects such as irregularities, oxides and oxidized layers from the metal surface and improves the quality of the part.
Improve corrosion resistance: Polished metal surfaces are smoother, reducing the possibility of corrosion.
Optimizes machinability: Polishing makes the metal surface easier to lubricate, which improves machinability and wear resistance.
The polishing process may require specialized equipment and processes, increasing production costs.
Some metal polishing processes may cause environmental pollution and wastewater treatment problems.
Manufacturing: Polishing is widely used for metal parts processing in automotive, aerospace, machinery, electronics, and other manufacturing industries.
Construction and decoration: Polishing is used for stainless steel, aluminum and other metal products to improve the appearance of buildings and decorations.
Electrical and Electronic Industry: Used to improve the conductivity and surface smoothness of electronic equipment such as conductive rails and contactors.
Medical devices: used to improve the appearance quality and surface hygiene of medical devices.
Household and kitchenware: Polishing is applied to stainless steel kitchenware and household items to make them easier to clean and more aesthetically pleasing.
Electropolishing is a process of polishing and removing surface oxidation from metal surfaces using electrochemical principles. The basic principle is that by energizing an electrolyte, the metal workpiece acts as an anode, causing a redox reaction on the surface.
This method has several advantages over traditional mechanical polishing:
Uniformity: Electrolytic polishing removes the oxidized layer from the metal surface uniformly, resulting in a smoother and more uniform surface.
Automation: The electrolytic polishing process can be automated, increasing productivity and consistency.
Efficiency: Electrolytic polishing is often faster compared to mechanical polishing, especially for large workpieces.
Complex shapes: Electrolytic polishing is suitable for complex shaped workpieces without geometric limitations.
Electrolytic polishing also has some limitations and considerations:
Electrolyte selection: Different metals require different types of electrolytes, so choosing the right electrolyte is critical.
Control parameters: Parameters such as current density, treatment time and temperature need to be precisely controlled, otherwise uneven polishing results may be caused.
Environmental issues: Electrolytic polishing involves chemical treatment, and the discharge of treatment waste and exhaust gases needs to be handled properly to avoid any impact on the environment.
Surface cleaning and preparation by blasting high-speed, high-pressure abrasive particles, usually hard ones, onto the surface of the object to be treated to remove dirt, oxidation, old coatings, rust, etc.
Fast and effective: Sandblasting is fast and can quickly remove large areas of dirt, oxidized layers, or coatings, improving processing efficiency.
High removal capacity: Abrasive blasting removes a variety of more robust surface dirt and oxides, including rust, paint, welding slag, etc.
Provides Roughness: Sandblasting can create the desired roughness on the surface, providing good adhesion for subsequent coating, bonding, or painting.
No Chemical Pollution: No chemical solvents are used in the sandblasting process, which does not pollute the environment or leave chemical residues on the surface of the object being treated.
Reusable abrasives: Some abrasives such as steel shot and glass beads can be reused, reducing the cost of treatment.
Generation of dust: Sandblasting generates a large amount of abrasive dust, which may be harmful to the operator and the surrounding environment, and requires appropriate protective measures and environmental controls.
Surface damage: For some materials, sandblasting may cause microscopic damage to the surface, requiring careful selection of the appropriate abrasive and blasting parameters.
Not suitable for soft materials: Abrasive blasting is suitable for harder materials, but for soft, fragile materials, it may cause surface deformation or damage.
Limited Coating Removal: Some coating types, especially strong, solid coatings, may not be easily and completely removed and may require other methods to assist in the process.
Noise and vibration: Blasting equipment typically generates noise and vibration, which may have some impact on the health of the operator.
This technology is used in a wide variety of applications, mainly for cleaning, preparing, and repairing metallic and non-metallic surfaces. Metal fabrication, marine and aviation, and automotive repair.
Construction and concrete surface preparation
Structural Steel Cleaning
Bead blasting is a specialized sandblasting technique also known as glass bead blasting or microbead blasting. Unlike traditional blasting, which uses hard abrasive particles, bead blasting uses tiny glass or ceramic beads as abrasive particles. A process in which a stream of sandblasting media is forcefully propelled under high pressure to impact a metal surface to remove unwanted coatings and surface impurities.
Surface Smoothness: bead blasting uses smaller bead particles than traditional grit blasting, allowing for a higher degree of polishing and smoothing without damaging the surface of the object. This is very beneficial for some workpieces that need to maintain a fine surface, such as precision parts or artwork.
Removal of Oxidized Layer: Bead blasting is suitable for removing oxidized layer and rust from metal surfaces, which makes the metal surfaces look new and restores their original luster.
Precise control: During the bead blasting process, the degree of surface treatment can be precisely controlled by adjusting the air pressure, blasting speed and the size of bead particles to meet the needs of different workpieces.
Environmentally friendly: Compared with traditional grit blasting, using glass or plastic beads can reduce pollution to the environment as they can be recycled and reused.
Cost of consumables: Compared to traditional grit blasting, glass or plastic beads cost more because they are disposable consumables and cannot be reused as many times as grit.
Removal ability: Bead blasting may not be as effective at removing thicker or harder dirt and coatings compared to metal grit blasting.
Applicable Materials: Bead blasting is suitable for soft, delicate, or fragile materials, but non-metallic, harder materials may require a more aggressive grit blasting method.
Processing Speed: Due to the small size of the bead particles, grit blasting speeds may be slower, and processing times may increase, especially when working with large areas.
How to choose a metal finish
The right metal finish can be used as a means of protecting the metal. To choose the right metal surface treatment, you need to consider these factors:
- Surface Objectives
Start by determining what kind of surface finish you wish to achieve. You may need simple cleaning and rust removal, or you may need to achieve a finer surface quality such as polishing, plating, coating, etc. Different metal finishing methods are suitable for different surface objectives.
- Material Type
Different metal materials respond differently to surface treatments. Some metals may be more sensitive to specific treatments, while others may require different treatment techniques. Ensure that the treatment you choose is suitable for the metal material involved.
- Time Costs
Each metal surface treatment requires a different timeframe. If you have a project to deliver, consider the time required to deliver it.
- Application Scenarios
Consider what application scenario the metal workpiece will be used in. For example, if the metal workpiece will be used outdoors, corrosion and weathering resistance may be important considerations, whereas methods such as galvanizing or anti-corrosion coatings may be an option.
- Treatment complexity
Some metal surface treatments are suitable for simple geometries, whereas more sophisticated treatment techniques, such as electrolytic polishing, may be required for complex shapes.
- Cost and efficiency
Different surface treatment methods offer different costs and efficiencies. Ensure that the treatment you choose fits within your budget and can be completed within the expected timeframe.
- Environmental Requirements
Some surface preparation methods may involve the use of hazardous chemicals or the generation of waste liquids and gases. If environmental requirements are a major concern, choose a more environmentally friendly treatment method or ensure that the waste generated is disposed of properly.