Glass refers to a silicate compound whose chemical composition is silicon dioxide, of which silicon dioxide accounts for more than 60%.
Glass is a binary silicate compound composed of silicon oxide (SiO2) and alkaline earth metal oxides (K2O+Na2O).
In general, after dissolving silicon dioxide or titanium dioxide in hot water, glass liquid is obtained.
When water exists in solid form, it is called glass.
1. Glass material
Due to its excellent physical and chemical properties, glass is widely used in various fields such as optics, military affairs, and construction.
Glass has a high melting point and can be used to make various optical instruments and advanced handicrafts.
According to its composition, it is divided into ordinary glass and safety glass.
2. What is glass in chemistry?
Glass is a silicate compound composed of silicon dioxide and sodium oxide (Na2O) and is translucent.
Glass has a high melting point and melts into a liquid above 1000°C, but it can remain solid at room temperature.
It is a mixture of silica and alkali metal oxides.
3. What are the types of glass?
- Crystal glass: Crystal glass is a material with high optical properties, mainly used in military optical systems, precision instruments and industrial instruments.
- Crystalline glass is a material with excellent transparency and high temperature resistance. It is widely used in automobiles, aircrafts and other industries, mainly for windows.
- Special glass is made of ordinary glass plus other components.
- Special glass: mainly divided into two categories: inorganic non-metal and organic polymer.
4. What are the characteristics of glass
- Glass is an inorganic substance with electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and chemical stability.
- Because of its small coefficient of thermal expansion, glass can be used as a thermal insulation layer.
- Low shrinkage at room temperature and good mechanical strength.
- Glass has the characteristics of corrosion resistance.
- The chemical properties of the glass are stable, and it has certain high temperature resistance and corrosion resistance.
- The chemical properties are stable and do not react with other substances.
5.hard or curved
Glass is a relatively soft material, and it has many different curved shapes. We often see some glass products with more complicated shapes.
If we want to cut glass, we need to do it when it is very thin, otherwise the glass will shatter very easily.
In general, when cutting it with a glass knife, we can cut the upper surface of the glass into rounded corners or bevels, which can reduce cut marks and allow the blade to contact the glass faster and better.
6. Top 10 uses of glass
The main application fields of glass materials are construction and industry, and the main products include ordinary glass and wired glass.
- Ordinary safety glass: used to protect human life and safety, it is an indispensable and important building material;
- Industrial safety glass: used to protect human life and reduce personal injury and property loss;
- Decorative safety glass: play a role in beautifying the environment.
7. How is glass recycled?
Glass products are mainly composed of silica, if it is broken, a large amount of silica dust will be produced, which will cause serious pollution to the environment.
In order to reduce the harm of these industrial wastes to the environment, manufacturers of glass products must recycle and reuse silica dust.
At present, about 1 ton of silicon dust is needed to produce a piece of glass. If it is recycled and reused, the production cost can be greatly reduced, and the pollution to the environment can also be reduced. In addition, silica dust can also be made into new glass products.
8. How is glass classified
- According to the production method, it can be divided into: float glass, vacuum glass, tempered furnace glass, laminated glass and others.
- According to the use, it can be divided into: daily-use glass and industrial glass.
- According to the region of manufacture: float tempered glass is the main product in the north, vacuum tempered glass is the main product in the south; hollow tempered glass is the main product in the south, laminated flat glass and wire tempered glass are the main products in the north.
- According to the processing method, it can be divided into: manual forming products, mechanical forming products and processed forming products.
- According to the purpose: the main purpose of ordinary glass is construction and interior decoration, while the main purpose of building curtain wall is transparent and translucent; the main purpose of safety glass is to protect people’s safety and prevent external objects from harming the human body; The main use of glass is decoration (such as screens); laminated glass can be used as a building material, used as a partition between the interior and exterior walls of buildings or between doors and windows; special products such as embossed tempered laminated glass panels, etc.
9. What quality glass is the best
Due to its dense structure and high strength, tempered glass is currently the safest glass in the world.
At present, the most widely used glass products should be safety glass, which has good impact resistance.
However, since tempered glass is prone to thermal and mechanical stress during processing, corresponding measures must be taken to relieve the stress, which requires the use of a special sound-insulating material called a thermal anechoic panel.
Thermal anechoic plate is a kind of sound-absorbing material used in insulating glass to absorb the sound waves on the inner surface of the glass, and its performance is directly related to the thickness and structure of the glass.
10. What is strong glass
Many people know the advantages of tempered glass, but tempered glass is also a disadvantage that it is fragile, which brings great inconvenience to use. So is there a way to make tempered glass unbreakable?
First of all, we must start with the composition and structure of glass. Although ordinary glass will not break, it is easy to break when it is impacted. Because the strength of ordinary glass is increased by adding impurities to the glass, this will make ordinary glass very fragile.
If strength is desired, other substances can be added in addition to impurities.
11. Is glass worse than plastic
Glass is a very hard substance, but it cannot be broken by anything.
Because of its strong elasticity, it can protect anything.
Therefore, glass is a relatively “fragile” but very durable material.
12. Can a piece of transparent glass withstand bullets
Glass is a very common material that is widely used in the construction industry.
We usually use it to make many things, such as windows, doors, roofs and so on.
So here comes the question: Is glass a good material?
In fact, glass is not bulletproof.
This is because: due to its very low density, it cannot stop the penetration of bullets at all.
However, after the glass is hit, it can still return to its original state if it is simply subjected to force.
13. Will the glass be “exploded”
We all know that in an impact, the expansion explosion occurs inside the glass.
But this does not mean that the glass will be “broken” in a collision.
That’s because, when the force on the glass in a high-speed collision exceeds the maximum value that the glass can withstand, the glass plate begins the process of self-strengthening.
In other words, if you hit the glass with your fist, it will only break faster.
And when a person hits the glass with a fist, the forces received by the two are different.
14. Can a person break glass with his hands
Before breaking the glass, we must first understand a truth: people cannot break the glass.
The reason is simple: human skin is very thin, only a few microns thick, and you are an adult, your hand has grown unconsciously, and its strength is enough to break any piece of glass.
15. What is ultra-thin glass
Ultra-thin glass is thin glass with a thickness of only 2 mm.
Generally, the thickness of this kind of ultra-thin glass used in buildings is about 0.04-0.08 mm, and it can be made into flat glass, laminated glass, tempered glass and so on.
This kind of glass is characterized by good light transmission, which can ensure sufficient and soft indoor light, and can effectively protect privacy.
16. What is thick glass
Thick glass refers to glass whose thickness is greater than 3 mm, also known as laminated glass.
Thick glass is based on ordinary float glass, coated with one or more layers of special film with high strength, high refractive index and low dispersion on the surface, and then processed by high temperature heating and melting.
Thick glass can be used to produce laminated glass, insulating glass and other types of toughened glass.
Among them, the thickness of tempered and hollow tempered glass is more than 3 mm. For example, the thickness of tempered glass is generally about 3.5 mm, and the thinnest laminated glass can reach 0.1 mm.
17. Is glass safer than metal
Answer: Glass is safer than metal.
Answer: Lead and its compounds are the most harmful to the human body, but glass does not contain such substances. If the glass products used in buildings contain lead or lead compounds, due to its large thermal expansion coefficient (about 5 times that of iron), it is easy to cause temperature changes and burst; and lead is chemically unstable as a heavy metal element. easy to oxidize into other substances), has the characteristics of corrosion resistance, good chemical stability, and not easy to wear.
18. What are the applications of the architectural glass market
- Building facades, roofs, curtain walls;
- Indoor doors and windows: glass curtain wall (also known as metal aluminum veneer curtain wall);
- Door and window glass of buildings, such as: glass windows, ordinary glass (wired glass, safety fog glass).
- Door and window decoration and components of buildings.
- Other applications: used as hanging boards or partition wall materials for interior decoration and decoration, outdoor billboards, architectural model materials and decorations, etc.;
19. the application of glass in the construction market
Architectural glass is an important part of the construction industry. It mainly includes two categories: transparent and opaque. Transparent glass is mostly used in buildings. Opaque glass is generally used in large buildings. It has superior performance, rich colors and beautiful appearance. .
Architectural transparent glass is widely used in hotels, restaurants, theaters, shopping malls, gymnasiums and high-end residences, and has become one of the main materials for modern decoration design and decoration.
Architectural impermeable glass is also a kind of architectural glass, which can block the large amount of outdoor air entering through doors and windows.
20. What are the good substitutes for glass in building structures
Architectural glass is an important part of modern architecture. Its application can not only enrich the aesthetic value of the building, but also improve the safety and heat insulation of the building. It plays an increasingly important role in people’s living and life. effect.
In modern high-rise buildings and large public buildings, hollow glass is generally used to reduce the loss of buildings caused by cold in winter.
Insulating glass is composed of two or more layers of vacuum film or more than two layers of vacuum film. The interlayer can be filled with specially processed metal materials (such as aluminum, titanium, etc.) to play the role of cold and heat insulation. Its performance is even better than ordinary glass and single-layer transparent film glass.
Insulating glass has good light transmittance and high light transmittance, and is an ideal transparent window. When producing insulating glass, it is also possible to increase its heat insulation by adding interlayer materials, but this method requires a higher level of craftsmanship.
21.Why use glass in road construction
The reason is that glass itself has good optical properties, can reflect or absorb solar radiation, and plays a good role in protecting road traffic, so many countries use glass in road construction.
22. What is the largest single pane of glass ever used in a building
Answer: The ratio of 11 and 12 is 1:1.05, that is, there are 3 square meters of glass curtain walls for every 1 square meter of area.
Answer: 5 or more are not counted.
In addition, metals are harmful to the human body mainly because they release toxic gases at high temperatures, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, etc., so metal components used in construction should be placed in safe areas.
Glass does not have these dangers (especially architectural glass).
23.What kind of glass used for construction as a heat resistant
Heat-resistant glass for construction, also known as high-temperature glass and heat-reflecting glass. It is a new type of architectural safety glass developed on the basis of ordinary flat glass. It is characterized by good high temperature resistance, high light transmittance and strong UV resistance.
High temperature resistance: refers to the highest temperature that the sample can withstand under the specified test conditions; the higher the heat resistance, the better the heat resistance.
Light transmittance: refers to the degree of transmission of visible light.
Anti-ultraviolet ability: refers to the strength of resisting ultraviolet rays under sunlight.
24.How is glass used in building construction
During the construction process, the transportation, installation and removal of glass are important links in the project. Pay attention to safety during the transportation of glass to avoid accidents. Pay attention to the use specifications and safety measures when installing; and follow the relevant operating procedures when disassembling. <n> Precautions for the use of glass: <n> 1. Before use, it is necessary to check whether the glass is intact. If there are abnormal phenomena such as damage or cracks, it is strictly forbidden to continue to use it. 2. Check the glass surface for scratches, bubbles, stains and water marks before use. 3. When it is necessary to replace the new glass, the old glass should be thoroughly cleaned and the dust should be wiped off, and then the water can be dried with a dry cloth before it can be put into use again.
25、Is glass able to be used as a load-bearing construction material?
Glass can be used as a load-bearing building material. In order to reduce noise pollution in modern buildings, it has become a trend to adopt various sound insulation measures to reduce the harm of noise to the surrounding environment. Among them, the most widely used is to install sound-absorbing materials to absorb sound wave energy. To achieve the effect of reducing indoor sound. There are many types of sound-absorbing materials, for example: rock mineral wool board (fireproof board), slag wool board (cement fiber board), gypsum composite ceiling, etc., all belong to a kind of sound-absorbing material. 3. Strong plasticity – easy to process into products of different shapes and sizes
25.Is glass able to be used as a load-bearing construction material?
Mechanical Properties of Glass: Strength, Stiffness, and Hardness. Glass is a brittle material with low tensile strength and high compressive strength; glass has poor bending resistance; glass has low elastic modulus and is easy to deform. Therefore, when used as a load-bearing building material, materials with higher strength such as reinforced concrete should be selected.
26.Will transparent wood replace glass in construction in the near future?
Transparent wood is a new type of building material that has emerged in recent years. It is a composite material made of wood, resin and other materials. Its biggest feature is that it can transmit light and has a light transmittance similar to glass. At present, transparent wood has been widely used in European and American countries.
In the domestic market, as people’s requirements for building energy conservation are increasing and the concept of green environmental protection is deeply rooted in the hearts of the people, transparent wood, as a new type of energy-saving and environmental protection material, has also been rapidly developed and widely used. According to incomplete statistics, in 2015, the use of transparent wood in mainland China exceeded 2 billion square meters, and it is expected to exceed 3 billion square meters in 2018.
The main uses of transparent wood are:
For interior decoration;
27.Which is better to construct a greenhouse with glass, polycarbonate or acrylic?
In greenhouse construction, glass and polycarbonate are commonly used materials. So which one is better for a greenhouse built with these two materials?
Glass greenhouses have the characteristics of high light transmittance, but the disadvantages are also obvious: fragile, poor heat preservation, short service life, etc.
Polycarbonate has better light transmission and impact resistance than glass, but it is also more expensive. The advantage of acrylic material is that it is not afraid of water and fire, and it is light in weight and high in strength.
Therefore, polycarbonate or acrylic is generally used to make roof panels and side wall panels in the construction of greenhouses.
28.Why are windows fitted with glass panes during construction
The role of the glass plate during construction is:
- Prevent dust from entering during construction.
- Protect the window frame and make the glass not easy to break
29、What is the best way to glue plastic to glass?
Gluing plastic to glass is difficult because the surface of the glass is very smooth and it is difficult to hold the glue on it.
But it’s much better if you use a special glue.
This glue can stick to the glass and will not leave marks or scratch the effect of the surface, it is polyurethane glue.
29.What is the best way to glue plastic to glass?
The adhesive tape on the glass is difficult to remove, so how do we remove the adhesive tape on the glass?
The tape is very sticky and difficult to remove with general cleaners. If you use alcohol, it is easy to scratch the glass.
You can use a professional glue remover for cleaning: first spray some glue remover on the glass; then wait for about 10 minutes; finally wipe it clean with a wet towel
30.How can I glue glass to glass permanently?
Glass bonding technology is one of the important contents in glass deep processing. At present, the bonding technology of glass at home and abroad mainly adopts thermal melting, chemical and mechanical methods. The most used method is the hot melt method, the principle of which is to melt the adhesive by heating and infiltrate the surface of the glass to form an adhesive film, and then firmly bond the adhesive film to another piece of glass; and chemical methods and mechanical methods The method is a method of fixing glass by chemical reaction or physical action.
31.What is stronger than glass?
There is a material stronger than glass – metal alloy steel (stainless steel for short). This material has high strength and hardness at high temperatures, and is not easy to corrode, rust, and wear. Therefore, stainless steel is widely used in the manufacture of various machine parts and building structures.
32.What is the hardest glass on earth?
What is the hardest glass on earth? Diamond. Diamond is a single crystal composed of carbon, its hardness is second only to diamond. The hardness of diamond is so high that it can be processed into gems and tools of various shapes, such as the tools we often see for cutting diamonds-diamond knives are made of diamond.
33.What is grade a glass?
Grade A glass is a kind of tempered glass, which is a kind of prestressed glass. Its strength is 4 to 5 times higher than that of ordinary flat glass, and its impact strength is 3 to 5 times that of ordinary flat glass. It has good thermal and chemical stability; it has a large use safety space and greatly reduces the harm to human body when it is broken.