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What is Difference Between Silica sol and Water Glass in Casting?

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In the realm of casting, two commonly used materials, Silica Sol and Water Glass, stand out for their unique characteristics and applications. Together with the water glass casting process, silica sol plays an important role in precision investment casting.

Silica Sol in Casting

Silica Sol, also known as colloidal silica, is a versatile and popular material used in investment casting, a precision casting method known for its ability to produce intricate and high-quality components.

Silica Sol investment casting
Silica Sol investment casting

The Use of Silica Sol in Investment Casting

Silica Sol is a critical component in the investment casting process. Investment casting, often referred to as lost-wax casting, is a method that allows for the production of highly detailed and complex parts with exceptional precision and surface quality. Silica Sol plays a pivotal role in creating the ceramic shell molds used in investment casting.

Silica Sol is used as a binder and refractory material in the production of ceramic shells. It is mixed with high-quality zircon and fused silica to create a slurry that is applied to the wax patterns of the desired casting. The slurry hardens to form a ceramic shell around the wax pattern.

Introduction to Silica Sol Casting Process

The process of using Silica Sol in investment casting can be summarized as follows:

  • Wax Pattern Creation: A wax pattern, identical to the final desired part, is produced. These patterns are attached to a gating system, creating a tree-like assembly.


  • Dipping: The wax assembly is repeatedly dipped in a Silica Sol slurry. After each dip, it is coated with a fine refractory material, often zircon and fused silica.


  • Drying: Each layer is allowed to dry before the next dip, forming a multi-layered ceramic shell. This shell will serve as the mold for the final casting.


  • De-Waxing: The entire assembly is then subjected to high temperatures to melt and remove the wax, leaving behind an empty ceramic shell.


  • Casting: The ceramic shell is preheated, and molten metal is poured into it. The metal solidifies within the ceramic mold.


  • Shell Removal: After the metal has cooled and solidified, the ceramic shell is carefully removed, revealing the cast metal part.


Suitable Products for Silica Sol Casting

Silica Sol investment casting is particularly well-suited for products and components that require the utmost precision, intricate details, and high-quality surface finishes.

It is often used in industries such as aerospace, medical, and automotive for manufacturing components like turbine blades, dental implants, and automotive engine parts.

Advantages of Silica Sol investment casting

  • High Precision: Silica Sol investment casting excels in producing parts with intricate and precise geometries, making it a top choice for industries where precision is paramount.
  • Excellent Surface Quality: Components cast using Silica Sol typically have smooth and flawless surface finishes, reducing the need for additional post-processing.
  • Complex Designs:Silica Sol allows for the casting of complex and detailed designs, offering design flexibility.


Disadvantages of Silica Sol in investment casting

  • Cost: The use of Silica Sol in investment casting can be more expensive compared to other casting methods due to the complexity of the process.
  • Production Time:Investment casting with Silica Sol is a time-consuming process, which may not be suitable for projects with tight deadlines.
  • Limited for Smaller Parts:While Silica Sol is versatile, it may not be the most cost-effective choice for small, simple parts where precision and surface quality are not critical.

Basic Parameters of Silica Sol Casting

Surface Finish Ra6.3
Wall Thickness Up to 1mm
Dimension Tolerance ±0.1mm,Ct4-6
Unit Weight Extent 0.1-100kg
Unit Size Limit 0.01~0.5 Meters
Degree of Complexity Very Complex
Machining Less or None Due to Its Accurate Dimension

Water Glass in Casting

Water Glass, also known as sodium silicate, is a versatile material primarily used as a binder in sand casting, a widely employed casting method that is cost-effective and suitable for various applications.

Water Glass plays a pivotal role in sand casting, a casting method that involves creating molds from a mixture of sand and a binder. Water Glass, when mixed with sand, acts as a binder and helps hold the sand particles together to form molds. It is particularly prevalent in sand casting due to its cost-effectiveness and its ability to create molds for a wide range of products.

stainless steel investment casting

The Process of Water Glass in Sand Casting

  • Pattern Creation:A pattern, typically made of wood or metal, is created to replicate the shape of the desired product.
  • Pattern Placement:The pattern is placed within the sand to create an impression, usually in a two-part mold known as a flask.
  • Sand Preparation:A mixture of sand and Water Glass is prepared. The Water Glass serves as a binder, and when mixed with sand, it hardens and adheres to the pattern’s shape.
  • Mold Formation: The sand mixture is packed around the pattern to form the mold cavity. The flask is then separated into two halves to remove the pattern.
  • Casting:Molten metal is poured into the mold, filling the cavity left by the pattern.
  • Solidification:The metal solidifies within the mold, taking on the shape of the pattern.
  • Mold Removal:After the metal has cooled and solidified, the sand mold is broken away, revealing the cast metal part.

Suitable Products for Water Glass Casting

Water Glass casting is well-suited for a wide range of products, especially those that are larger in size and do not require the high precision and intricate details often associated with other casting methods.

 It is commonly used in industries such as agriculture, construction, and general manufacturing for producing components like engine blocks, pump housings, and architectural elements.

Advantages of Using Water Glass in Casting

  • Cost-Effective: Water Glass is an inexpensive material, making it a cost-effective choice for casting larger products in large quantities.
  • Versatility: Sand casting with Water Glass is versatile and can be used for casting a wide variety of product shapes and sizes.
  • Low Melting Point Alloys: Water Glass casting is suitable for alloys with lower melting points, which can be a limitation in some other casting methods.


Disadvantages of Using Water Glass in Casting:

  • Surface Finish:Water Glass casting tends to yield products with rougher surface finishes compared to methods like Silica Sol casting, often requiring additional post-processing.
  • Lack of Precision: The method is less precise, making it unsuitable for applications that demand high precision and intricate details.
  • Environmental Concerns: Water Glass, being an inorganic binder, can pose environmental challenges related to disposal and waste management.

Difference Between Silica sol  and Water Glass in Casting

Silica Sol Water Glass
Casting Process Silica Sol plays a crucial role in investment casting by forming the ceramic shell that acts as the mold. Water Glass serves as a binder in sand casting, holding the sand particles together to create molds.
Precision High precision is suitable for intricate and detailed components. Sand casting with Water Glass is less precise, making it suitable for products that do not require high precision.
Design requirements It is able to capture and preserve complex geometries, thin-walled structures and details. Sand casting is generally simpler in terms of process, making it suitable for larger, less intricate products.
Cost This method is often more expensive due to the precision and time-intensive processes involved. Water Glass casting is cost-effective, ideal for budget-conscious projects and larger, less complex parts.
Surface finish Excellent surface finish Relative to silica sol casting, the surface quality of water glass casting is generally poorer.
Product wall thickness Silica sol casting is suitable for making thin-walled castings because of its ability to maintain fine details and thin-walled structures. Thicker parts are better suited to water glass casting as it provides sufficient strength.


In conclusion, the differences between Silica Sol and Water Glass in casting are substantial and should not be underestimated.

Silica Sol offers high precision, exceptional surface quality, and is well-suited for intricate and complex designs. It excels in producing components for industries like aerospace and medical where precision is crucial.

Water Glass, on the other hand, is cost-effective, versatile, and suitable for larger, less intricate products. It may not provide the same level of precision and surface quality as Silica Sol but is ideal for applications in agriculture, construction, and general manufacturing.

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