Let’s Connect:
Search
Close this search box.

Materials Used in Die Casting

Table of Contents

This is an article about precision casting.

For over fifteen years, Easiahome has been a leader in the die casting industry, providing quality parts for a wide range of industries, including medical, power tools, household appliances, gaming toys, and more. We have created thousands of die-cast examples for our global customers. If you can’t find the specific die-cast example you are looking for on our webpage, you can contact us via email and we will be sure to find the right part for your industry.

This ultimate FAQ guide is here to provide you with all the information you need to know about die-casting parts. Whether you are an experienced professional or a novice in the die-casting process, you should take the time to read through this guide. So let us begin!

What Is Die Casting?

Die casting is a manufacturing process that uses high pressure to inject liquid metal into a reusable steel die. Once the metal is cooled rapidly, it solidifies and takes on its final shape.

die casting parts
die casting parts

Which Materials Do You Use for Die Casting Parts?

Aluminum die-casting

It is one of the most commonly used materials for die-casting parts. It is lightweight, has excellent corrosion resistance, is highly dimensionally stable, and has great mechanical properties. Moreover, aluminum die-casting has a high thermal and electrical conductivity, and its strength increases at elevated temperatures. Utilizing aluminum die-casting results in die-casting parts that are lightweight yet can withstand very high operating temperatures.

Aluminum die-casting
Aluminum die-casting

One of the primary drawbacks of aluminum diecasting is the possibility of various casting defects, such as shrinkage holes, pores, slag, and blisters. Despite this, aluminum diecasting has a variety of uses, including:

Improving the fuel efficiency of vehicles by reducing weight requirements.

Being utilized in communication and telecommunication industry infrastructure and networking equipment, such as RF filter housings and boxes requiring heat dissipation.

Being employed in handheld devices to offer EMI/RFI shielding, durability, and rigidity with reduced weight, due to its excellent electrical performance and shielding properties.

Furthermore, aluminum diecasting is also able to be used in high temperature environments.

 

Zinc die casting

Zinc die casting provides high ductility and is very easy to cast and plate. Its melting point is low and it has excellent flowability, which makes it easy to cut and pressure-form, as well as weld and solder. Coatings can be applied to zinc die cast parts using both metallic and non-metallic coatings that are deposited chemically or electrochemically.

zinc cast parts
zinc cast parts

However, zinc die casting has one major disadvantage: it has poor mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, causing it to change dimensions through natural aging and resulting in reduced corrosion resistance.

Despite these drawbacks, zinc die casting is still used for a variety of applications, such as pressure die casting for decorative and structural parts of electrical machines, motor vehicles, household appliances, office machinery, souvenirs, and other items. It is also used as a bearing lining to serve as an antifriction material. Additionally, zinc die casting is used in the printing industry.

Magnesium die casting

Magnesium die casting is an ideal option for those looking for a lightweight yet strong material that can be easily machined. It offers a great weight-to-strength ratio and helps reduce the corrosion of materials used in zinc die casting. However, it is susceptible to corrosion and requires more post-production processing, resulting in a higher production cost than aluminum or zinc die casting. To reduce corrosion, surface coating modification can be used.

Magnesium die cast part
Magnesium die cast part

A wide range of automotive parts can be created using magnesium die casting, such as interior parts, body parts, chassis parts, and powertrain parts. Examples of interior parts are steering column, key lock housing, glove box door, seat riser, console bracket, seat frame, steering wheel, and radio housing. Body parts include mirror bracket, spare tire carrier, fuel filler lid, door, and liftgate inner panel, and roof frame. Chassis parts can include brake pedal alarm, clutch brake, accelerator bike, pedal bracket, mounting bracket, and racing wheel. Lastly, powertrain parts can include clutch housing, engine block, piston housing, cam cover, valve cover, transfer case, alternator, oil filter adapter, and electric motor housing.

Copper die casting

Copper die casting is a process that produces components with superior resistance to corrosion, high hardness, excellent wear resistance and high mechanical properties. This method of casting also offers excellent dimensional stability and strength comparable to that of steel parts. However, copper die casting does have its drawbacks, such as a susceptibility to cracking on the surface, internal cavities, and shrinkage.

Copper die cat parts
Copper die cat parts

ome of the common applications for copper die casting include electrode holders, electrical switchgear, electrode plates for process industry machinery, spot welding electrodes, die-cast rotors in motors of high efficiency, terminal lugs, high amperage circuit breakers, die-cast battery terminals and contact mechanisms.

Titanium die casting

Using titanium die casting has many advantages in engineering, including its high density, corrosion resistance, and precise dimensional control. This makes it an ideal choice for reducing the mass of components in vehicles, as well as providing a lighter overall weight. Despite its many benefits, titanium does have one major disadvantage: it has difficulty forming and welding, which limits its application in the automotive industry. Nevertheless, titanium die casting is still used in petrochemical, aerospace, and ship industries.

Titanium die cast parts
Titanium die cast parts

Which Technique Can You Use In Die Casting Parts?

Hot Chamber Die Casting

Hot Chamber Die Casting is a technique used for die casting parts that takes advantage of the relative temperature of the injection mechanism. The mechanism is submerged in liquid metal that has been melted in a furnace. The fast rate of this die casting technique is due to the fact that the metal does not need to be transferred to the injection mechanism. However, this technique is limited to metals that have a low melting temperature or those that are not reactive with steel.

Cold Chamber Die Casting

Cold Chamber Die Casting is a technique in which molten metal is melted in an external furnace and then transferred to the injection mechanism when the machine is ready to perform a casting. This method of die casting tends to have lower production rates than hot chamber die casting, as the metal needs to be moved from the furnace to the injection mechanism.

 

Which Components Can You Make During Die Casting Parts Process?

The diecasting process can be used to create a variety of parts for different industries. For the automotive industry, components such as pistons, gears, stripper pads, pressure pads, draw pads, cylinder heads, engine blocks, glove box door, steering column, radio housing, keylock housing, console bracket, steering wheel, seat frame, seat riser, spare tire carrier, mirror bracket, door handle, fuel filler lid, brake pedal alarm, accelerator brake, clutch brake, pedal bracket, engine block, piston housing, cam cover, and oil filter adapter can all be made.

In the builder’s hardware industry, the diecasting process can be used to make parts of a sink faucet, toys, pumps, valves, power tools, bushings, connector housing, lock parts, and plumbing instruments.

For the telecommunications industry, components such as computer parts, electronic communication parts, CNC turning parts, lighting technology, and consumer electronics can all be produced with diecasting.

In the sports industry, components such as frames or body parts for bicycles, sports equipment, and other related items can also be made through diecasting.

Finally, for the electrical machinery industry and electrical appliance industry, components such as electric fan, washing machine, television, electric iron, printed circuits, connectors, transistors, and integrated circuits can all be produced with the diecasting process.

What Are The Benefits Of Die Casting Parts?

Die casting parts offer numerous advantages, making them an ideal choice for rapid and mass production. The casting molds allow for the production of identical parts in large quantities, providing durable and stable structures with close tolerances. Die cast parts are often lighter and stronger than their counterparts, and require less assembly and finishing work. They also offer complex shapes and finer tolerances than any other mass production process. Die cast parts can be made with thin walls and high mechanical properties, and they can be cast with external threads. The die casting process is very efficient and economical, especially with high-volume production, and results in parts with high productivity, dimensional accuracy and good surface finishes.

Are There Limitations of Die Casting Parts?

Die casting parts come with a few limitations. These may include the generation of air holes, difficulty in producing concave parts, and a shorter lifespan for metals with high melting points such as ferrous metals and copper. Furthermore, due to the high costs associated with producing die casting parts, it is not suitable for small-scale production.

How Do You Control Quality During Die Casting Parts Process?

The quality of die casting parts is of paramount importance to both manufacturers and their customers, making stringent quality control essential during the production process. To keep quality in check, there are several key considerations that should be taken into account

The quality control of die casting parts prior to mass production is of utmost importance. To ensure that all dimensions meet customer requirements, it is essential to use Statistical Process Control (SPC), Failure Analysis (FA), and Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP). Additionally, inspections of the products should take place every two hours during the manufacturing process to minimize the chances of specifications not being met.

Which Defects Are Common During Die Casting Parts Process?

die casting defects
die casting defects

Gas porosity

Gas porosity is a common issue in die casting parts, which occurs when air bubbles form cavities within the solidified parts due to an uneven concentration of gas inside. This weakens certain sections of the parts and can be remedied by adjusting the pouring and mold temperatures and increasing the injection speed, the die casting composition, and the specific pressure. Turbulences may be triggered by the high-speed filling of the mold with fluids, gases, or air, which can exacerbate the gas porosity issue. By making the appropriate adjustments and alterations to the parts, the gas porosity defect can be eliminated.

Shrinkage Porosity

Shrinkage Porosity is a defect that occurs in the solidification and cooling phases of die casting parts. This is caused by the material shrinking during the process and can be distributed across multiple parts.

To prevent this defect, it is important to ensure compliance with die casting smelting standards, to maintain the required time for overheating the liquid, and to reduce the pouring temperature. Additionally, improving the casting structure can help to eliminate the possibility of shrinkage porosity forming on die casting parts.

Cold laps

Cold laps are a common issue in die casting caused by low temperatures and inconsistent flows. These can lead to a wide variety of defects such as material deficiencies and flow marks. Depending on the severity of the issue, the surface quality of the die cast parts can be severely compromised.

To combat cold laps, there are a few steps that can be taken. First, the temperature of the mold should be adjusted to a higher level. Additionally, the overflow tank should be increased to help ensure that the coating is uniform and thin. Finally, the filling speed should be altered to help change the pattern of flow of the liquid metal in the cavity. With these adjustments, you can help minimize the chance of cold laps and maintain a high quality product.

Blister

In the die casting process, air that gets trapped in the machine and mold can lead to various defects, such as cold shuts, hot cracks, shrinkage cavities, and blisters. To prevent these problems, it is important to reduce the air content in the die casting, reduce water lines, and control the vacuum valve, overflows, and chill vent. By doing so, blisters and other undesirable issues can be avoided.

Cracks

Cracks can be caused by both external and internal stress on the material. During the cooling and solidification process, the first cracks are formed due to residual stress. The second type of cracks may result from external forces, such as those obtained during the cutting or molding process when ejecting diecasting parts. To minimize this defect, it is necessary to improve the casting structure, reduce the thickness of the diecasting part’s wall, and regulate the mold temperature.

Laminations

Laminations are a common defect that can be difficult to detect and are typically only found after pre-finishing or finishing operations. To prevent them from occurring, it is important to increase the injection velocity and raise the mold temperature. Additionally, careful consideration should be taken when smelting and ensuring that any non-metallic inclusions and gas are removed. By following these steps, lamination formation can be avoided.

 

Colored Spots

Colored spots on die cast parts can be caused by using too much paint, impurities in the paint, or paint containing a high level of graphite. To avoid this issue, it is best to use a thin, consistent layer of paint and reduce the amount of graphite in the coating or opt for a graphite-free water-based coating. This will help ensure a uniform finish and prevent the accumulation of paint.

Is Die Casting Parts Eco-friendly?

The manufacturing process of die casting parts can have a significant impact on the environment. Machines need to be powered and metals melted, which requires a lot of energy. Additionally, the wastewater emitted must be properly treated.

Fortunately, die casting helps to lessen the environmental impact by utilizing recycled materials. These materials require less energy to produce, making the process more eco-friendly. Die cast parts tend to be thin-walled and light in weight, reducing the fuel consumption of vehicles like trucks and cars.

What Are Good Design Practices For Die Casting Parts?

Good design practices for die casting parts are essential to ensure a successful outcome. These include providing enough draft to make it easy to extract the castings from the die, adding fillets to all corners and edges, ensuring that the wall thickness is uniform, and allowing for metal flow in all areas of the die. Additionally, venting is necessary to allow air to escape as the metal pushes it, and cooling lines should be added to eliminate heat from the steel die with a balanced thermal distribution. Finally, ejector pins are needed to push the castings from the die without twisting them. By following these design practices, the die casting process can be successful.

Which Surface Finishes Can You Apply After Die Casting Parts?

Surface finishing is an important step when it comes to die casting parts. Different options are available depending on the desired outcome and budget. These include anodizing, painting, aluminum passivation, casting impregnation, e-coat, chem film, and gold plating.

surface finish of casting parts
surface finish of casting parts

 

Anodizing is a non-conductive protective coating for die casting parts, and is available in different colors such as black, blue, and red. It is a cost-effective way to form a resistance to corrosion and durability. On the other hand, painting offers a great look and is customizable, making it suitable for pre-treated or non-treated metal surfaces.

 

Aluminum passivation is used to add a thin film to die casting parts made from aluminum, to give corrosion resistance without compromising the conductivity. Casting impregnation is used to fill in and seal tiny pores in areas where tight pressure is required. E-coat makes use of electrical current to deposit paint on the surface of the die casting parts and provides long-term protection against corrosion. Chem film is used on die casting parts made from aluminum and that conduct electricity, and can be applied by dipping, brushing, or spraying. Gold plating is also used in the electronics industry and is resistant to oxidation, while still maintaining the conductivity of the die casting parts.

 

The main goals of these surface finishing options are to protect the die casting parts from corrosion, ionize them, seal them, help with the efficient performance of their surface, and meet the aesthetic standards or requirements. With these options, you can get affordable and high-quality die casting parts.contact us now.

-Recently Articles-

Share:

Get A Quote For Your Project

CNC

Get A Quote For Your Project

Please feel free to fill out the form below and we will contact you shortly.

logo-500-removebg-preview

Get the Easiahome Product Service Guide

Easiahome provides worldwide distribution of all stainless steel. With our wide range of products, we offer expert market advice and complete metal working.